Lewis Dot Structures of Molecules Lab       Name:________________         

 

Draw the Dot Structures for each of the following molecules (Module 4 Part B). If you did not do this in a previous course, use alternating colored pencils or pens to show the where the electrons were originally attached to the single atom. Then you should also show a covalent bond as a stick instead of a pair of electrons shared. You may also use your envelop of paper atoms.

(You will hand this paper in as your lab report) (You do not have to do these data pages in your lab Notebook.) Reference CHM 2045 McMurry test: Sections 7.5 and 7.6

 

1. Problem #1: NH3   CH4    H2O2   H2O 

(all single covalent bonds in #1)

 

Ammonia NH3

 

 

 

 

 

Methane CH4

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hydrogen Peroxide H2O2

 

 

 

 

 

Water H2O

 

 

 

 

 

 

also try (not all single bonds)  O2   H2   N2

 

 

 

2. Problem #2: H2SO4   H3PO4  HClO4   HClO3  HClO2  HClO

(all single covalent bonds in #2)

 

Hydrogen Sulfate (molecular); Surfuric Acid (aqueous)   H2SO4

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hydrogen Phosphate (molecular); Phosphoric Acid (aqueous) H3PO4

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hydrogen Perchorate (molecular); Perchoric Acid (aqueous) HClO4

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hydrogen Chlorate (molecular); Chloric Acid (aqueous) HClO3

 

 

 

 

Hydrogen Chlorite (molecular); Chlorous Acid (aqueous) HClO2

 

 

Hydrogen Hypochlorite (molecular); Hypochlorous Acid (aqueous) HClO

 

 

 

also try (all single bonds)  H2SO3   H3PO3 

 

3.  Problem #3:      H2CO3    HNO3    HNO2

(contains at least one double covalent bond in #3)

 

Hydrogen Carbonate (molecular); Carbonic Acid (aqueous) H2CO3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hydrogen Nitrate (molecular); Nitric Acid (aqueous) HNO3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hydrogen Nitrite (molecular); Nitrous Acid (aqueous) HNO2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4.  Problem #4   CO2  HCN  CO   SO3  SO2 

(contains at least one double or triple covalent bond in #4)

 

Carbon Dioxide  CO2                      Carbon Monoxide CO

 

 

 

 

Hydrogen Cyanide HCN

 

 

 

 

Sulfur Trioxide SO3                              Sulfur dioxide  SO2

 

 

 

 

 

 

5. Problem #5:   HC2H3O2           H2C2O4               HCHO2

(contains at least one double covalent bond in #5)

(bond carbons to carbon by single covalent bonds in the first two)

 

Hydrogen Acetate (molecular); Acetic Acid (aqueous) HC2H3O2 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hydrogen Oxalate (molecular); Oxalic Acid (aqueous) H2C2O4 

(bond hydrogens to oxygen by single covalent bonds, and bond two oxygens to each carbon)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hydrogen Formate (molecular); Formic Acid (aqueous)     HCHO2

(bond one hydrogen to oxygen, bond the other hydrogen to the carbon by single covalent bonds, and bond the two oxygens to the carbon)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

6. Problem #6:    C2H4    C2H2   C3H8   C2H6  (Aliphatic Hydrocarbons)

 

Ethylene  C2H4                            Acetylene C2H2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Propane  C3H8                            Ethane C2H6

 

 

 

 

 

 

7. CH2O   CH3COCH3  CH3CH2OH   

Formaldehyde  CH2O  (both hydrogens are on the carbon)

 

 

 

 

Acetone  CH3COCH3

(bond all three carbons by single bonds and bond the oxygen to the middle carbon)

 

 

 

 

 

Ethyl Alcohol CH3CH2OH (a hydrogen is attached to an oxygen (-OH group) to create an alcohol. The –OH can be attached to any carbon in a chain. In this example the –OH is attached to the end carbon)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 8. CH3OCH3       CHONH2         CH3CH2CH2OH    CH3CHOHCH3

 

Dimethyl Ether   CH3OCH3 (oxygen separates the carbons in the chain for ethers)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Methanamide    CHONH2 (oxygen, hydrogen, and amino group all attach to the carbon in amides)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

n-propyl Alcohol  CH3CH2CH2OH (the -OH alcohol group is attached to the last carbon and all three carbons are attached by single bonds to make a three carbon chain)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Isopropyl alcohol  CH3CHOHCH3 (the -OH alcohol group is attached to the second carbon in the three carbon chain)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

9.  CH2NH2COOH   CH3CHNH2COOH  (Amino acids)

(the -NH2 amino group is always attached to the #2 carbon in an amino acid)

(the –COOH group is an organic acid group, both oxygens bonded to the carbon and the hydrogen to an oxygen)

 

Glycine   CH2NH2COOH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Alanine  CH3CHNH2COOH  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

10.  CH3COOCH2CH3   CHOOCH3 (these are organic esters. The hydrogen in an organic acid (the –COOH group) is replaced by an alkyl group, which is -CH2CH3 (the ethyl group) in the first structure and – CH3 (the methyl group) in the second structure.)

 

Ethyl Acetate  CH3COOCH2CH3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Methyl Formate  CHOOCH3