Taylor’s Polyatomic Ion Charge Rule:

 

 

1

IA

IIA

 

 

 

 

H

 

 

 

 

 

IIIa

IVA

VA

VIA

VIIA

He

2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3-

2-**

1-#

 

 

Ne

3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2-**

3-

2-

1-

Ar

4

 

 

 

 

3-

2-

2-*

2-

 

 

 

 

 

 

3-

2-

1-

Kr

5

 

 

 

 

 

2-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2-**

3-

2-

1-

Xe

6

 

 

 

 

 

2-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2-**

 

 

 

Rn

7

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Link to Interactive Nonmetal Oxyanions

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Link to Interactive Transitional Metal Polyatomic Ions

 

 

 

*In Permanganate the Per means more charge (add +1 to manganate’s charge), not more oxygen as in perchlorate. Therefore: Permanganate  MnO41-

 

** Group IVA oxyanions have 2- charges instead of the expected 4- ! Why?

 

# Nitrate has a 1- charge instead of the expected 3- ! Why?

 

Observe the charges on the polyatomic ions below:

 

Use the position of the oxyanion on the periodic chart to determine the charge on the –ate Polyatomic Ion. See above!

 

Observation:

Seven of the Nonmetal oxyanions have the same charge as the charge on the central nonmetals –ide ionic charge.

Why?

 

Compare each to its corresponding –ide charge:

 

Observation:

Carbonate, Nitrate, and Silicate have oxyanionic charges that are different from what you would expect if you used the Roman Numeral A Group notation to determine the oxyanion’s charge. Why?

 

Exactly how do the charges compare to what you would expect?

 

 

Borate is also different because the Boron in Borate does not follow the octet rule. It follows the rules of six so the charge is 3- instead of 5-.

 

 

Footnote:

 

*The Single and Double Bond Rules apply to using the simple octet rule to all the nonmetal oxyanions. All nonmetals, except hydrogen, have only 8 total electrons. (hydrogen 2)

 

 If you apply the concept of formal charge, oxidation number, and total valence electrons, the central nonmetal may have ten and twelve electrons utilizing vacant d-orbitals and may add additional double bonds in the dot structures of oxyanions in periods three, four, and five. See below.

 

Review the following web site for a discussion of dot structures of polyatomic ions with additional double bonds:

http://www.homework-help-secrets.com/polyatomic-ions.html

 

  4. All –ate Transitional Metal Polyatomic Ions have a charge of 2-, except Vanadate which is 3-.

 

 

 

Below is a complete listing of polyatomic ions from the CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics:

 

Acetate CH3COO

          or C2H3O2

Aluminate        AlO2

          or Al2O42−

Amide              NH2

Ammonium      NH4+

Antimonate      SbO43−

Antimonite       SbO33−

Arsenate           AsO43−

Arsenite           AsO33−

Azide               N3

Benzoate  C6H5COO

Bicarbonate     HCO3

Borate              BO33−

Metaborate       BO2

Tetraborate       B4O72−

Bromate           BrO3

Bromite            BrO2

Carbide            C22−

Carbonate       CO32−

Carbonite        CO22−

Chlorate          ClO3

Chlorite           ClO2

Chromate       CrO42−

Chromite        CrO2    

Chromyl         CrO22+

Citrate          C6H5O73−

Cyanate          OCN

Cyanide          CN

Dichromate    Cr2O72−

Dihydrogen

     Arsenate   H2AsO4

Dihydrogen

     Phophate  H2PO4

Dihydrogen

     Phosphite H2PO3

Dioxygenyl         O2+

Disulfide             S22−

Ferrate           FeO42−           

Ferricyanide       Fe(CN)63−

Ferrocycanide    Fe(CN)64−            

Formate (formiate)   HCO2

Fulminate                 CNO

Hydrazide                 N2H3

Hydrogen carbonate  HCO3

Hydrogen arsenate   HAsO42−

Hydrogen phosphate HPO42−

Hydrogen phosphite  HPO32−

Hydrogen sulfate        HSO4

Hydrogen sulfite         HSO3

Hydrogen telluride      HTe

Hydronium                 H3O+

Hydroxide                   OH

Hypobromite              BrO

Hypochlorite              ClO

Hypoiodite                 IO

Hypophosphite          PO23−

Hyposulfite                SO22−

Periodate                   IO4

Iodate                        IO3

Thiodide                    I3

Iodite                         IO2

Isocyanate                NCO

Mercury (I)                Hg22+

Manganate                MnO42−

Molybdate                 MoO42−

Nitrate                       NO3

Nitrite                        NO2

Oxalate                     C2O42−

Ozonide                    O3

Perbromate               BrO4

Perchlorate               ClO4

Permanganate           MnO4

Peroxide                    O22−

Perrhenate                ReO4

Peroxomonosulfate   SO52−

Peroxodisulfate         S2O82−

 

Pertechnetate   TcO4

Phosphate         PO43−

Phosphite          PO33−

Plumbate           PbO32−

Plumbite            PbO22−

Pyridinium        C5H6N+

Pyrophosphate P2O74−

Pyrylium            C5H5O+

Quartenary

    Ammonium NR4+

Selenate          SeO42−

Selenite           SeO32−

Silicate           SiO32−

Disilicate        Si2O52−

Metasilicate   SiO32−

Orthosilicate  SiO44−

Pyrosilicate    Si2O76−

Stannate         SnO32−

Stannite          SnO22−

Sulfate            SO42−

Sulfite             SO32−

Sulfonium       R3S+

Superoxide     O2

Tartrate     (CH(OH)COO)22−

Metatellurate TeO42−

Orthotellurite TeO66−

Tellurite         TeO32−

Thiocyanate  SCN

Thiosulfate    S2O32−

Tosylate  CH3C6H4SO3

 (toluenesulfonate)

Triflate           CF3SO3

(trifluoromethanesulfonate)

Tungstate       WO42−

Uranyl              UO22+

Vanadate         VO43−

Vanadyl           VO2+

Pervanadyl      VO2+