-ate Polyatomic Ions: Dot Structures
IIIA/13 IVA/14 VA/15 VIA/16 VIIA/17
Borate
BO33-
 
Carbonate
CO32-
 
Nitrate
NO31-
 
  Because Fluorine is
more electronegative
than oxygen, there are

NO
fluorates
Silicate
SiO32-
 
Phosphate
PO43-
 
Sulfate
SO42-
 
 
Chlorate
ClO31-
 
 
Other -ate Polyatomic Ions
Acetate Ion
Hydrogen carbonate Ion
Hydrogen phosphate Ion
Hydrogen sulfate Ion
Chromate Ion
Dichromate Ion
Dihydrogen phosphate Ion
Permanaganate Ion
Polyatomic Ion Charts
from Textbooks


McMurray: Table 3.2
Silverberg: Table 2.5
Corwin: Table 7.03
Tillery: Table 9.3
Kotz: Table 3.1
Hill: Table 5.04
Arsenate
AsO43-
 
Selenate
SeO42-
 
Bromate
BrO31-
 
Taylor's 3/4
Oxygen Rule   all
Border Three Rule:
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Block of 4 Rule:
1 2 3 4
Transitional Metal 4:
both   5 6   none
Taylor's
Charge Rule   all
Single Bond Rule:
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Double Bond Rule:
1 2 3
Hydrogen Rule:
1 2 3    none
Taylor's Charge Rule:
1. Single Bond Rule:
If all the oxygens bonded to the nonmetal are single
covalent bonds, then the charage on the -ate
polyatomic ion is exactly the same as the charge
on the -ide central atom's ionic charge.

2. Double Bond Rule:
A double bond reduces the need for two electrons,
therefore increasing the charge from 3- to 1- or 4- to 2-
in the polyatomic ion (or adds +2 to the theorical charge)
3. Hydrogen Rule:
Hydrogens plug electron holes on the oxygen,
therefore decreasing the need for one electron
(or adds +1 to the charge of the polyatomic ion)
4. Transitional Metal Rule:
All transitional metal -ate polyatomic ions are 2-
(Per means more, but more charge-not more oxygen
add +1 to the formula in Permanaganate)
Iodate
IO31-