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Paper Submitted to:
Dr. James WhiteUniversity of South Florida
A Technology-Enhanced Innovative Approach
Teaching General College Chemistry
For Partial Fulfillment
John T. Taylor
Low and declining student success rate in General Chemistry I (CHM 1045) at Hillsborough Community College.
Will interactive, computer-enhanced instruction have a positive impact on the student success rates in General Chemistry I?
The original mission of a community college included the responsibility to serve as a transitional source for entry into higher education for non-traditional students. Usually, the population is older than the traditional 18-22 year old college population.
Many students enter college without the proper secondary school preparation or attempt college one or more decades after graduation from high school.
The student body of Hillsborough Community College (HCC) is similar to that of the State's twenty-seven other community colleges. HCC's average student age is 29 plus years. Nearly half of our students test into one of the three college preparatory programs, based on the results of State- mandated placement testing, and are unable to finish their degree program in two years. Most students who enter HCC have had only high school biology and may not have had high school chemistry or physics. Therefore, HCC has preparatory courses for college chemistry and college physics. By the State common course numbering system, these courses have been awarding elective credit.
a) 1995 State Mandates and their Potential Impact
In 1995 the Florida State Legislature imposed a 60 credit hour limit on course requirements for graduation from a community colleges and a 36 credit hour limit on general education requirements with regard to receipt of State support of tuition. This State support is usually the difference between in-state and out-of-state tuition.
Because of the nature of the typical community college student, this may seriously limit the student in exploration of careers, making a change in major, or participation in the natural maturing process which experienced by students during a traditional college pursuit. Many students enter college with unrealistic goals and many others just come to college undecided as to choice of course of study. It is the role of the general education curriculum to provide an opportunity for exploration of discipline options.
HCC has an unduplicated headcount each year exceeding 40,000 of which ; approximately 21,000 of these students are enrolled in college credit courses each year. At HCC the State supplement is the difference between $139.58 and 37.47 or $102.12 per credit hour. Under the new rules, the College will not receive this $102.12 for every hour the student attempts beyond the maximum of 60. The 1996 HCC graduating class had a total excess of 25,000 credit hours beyond the allowed 60 hours per student. This equates to a loss to the College of $2.5 million in State support. It is the responsibility of each school to determine how to compensate for this deficit. Ultimately, it may be passed on to the student.
Although the college preparatory courses do not count as part of the 60 credits, students placed in these courses usually have between 60 and 80 hours accumulated by the time they finish all their requirements for graduation.
The same 1995 legislature also passed a leveling rule, which forced all the community colleges and universities to decide once and for all whether a course belongs in the lower division or may be taught only in the upper division eliminating them from the community college. The impact has been more courses have been added into the lower division. One example is Introduction to Education Technology, EME 2040 (EME 4401 at the University of South Florida) is now deemed lower level and was added to HCC curriculum Spring 1997. Today with these new state mandated rules, students are taking less elective prerequisite courses because or their time to degree problem. The four extra elective credits (CHM 1025/CHM 1025L), may reduce other important areas needed in their program of study.
The state may ultimately question CHM 1025, as well as intermediate algebra, MAT 1033, and prep physics, PHY 1025, prerequisite elective courses to general education requirements. One solution is make these courses college preparatory and remove them as electives, or make them some other form of institutional non-transferable credit. (In 1968 the same chemistry course, same book was called remedial chemistry CHM 0003). Another solution is to adjust the prerequisites and the course content. At Jacksonville University ( a private school) , the chemistry department has decided to invoke a third semester to>first' year chemistry beginning in the Fall of 1997 to include topics which previously were deemed high school prerequisites. This is not possible at the state school. It is generally perceived that students are coming to college less prepared than 20 to 30 years ago. Therefore, there is a need to help the student with deficiencies without imposing additional courses, or changing the level of general content.
The prerequisite for General Chemistry I, CHM 1045, is one year of high school chemistry or aAC or better in Basic Chemistry, CHM 1025/CHML 1025. There is also a prerequisite or co-requisite of College Algebra, MAC 1104, for enrollment in CHM 1045. Students without any chemistry background may register for CHM 1045; there is no administrative Alockout for such students unless they also lack the basic college literacy skills--reading, writing and/or mathematics.
Faculty-designed placement tests are used to ascertain student readiness for CHM 1045. The result of this test is not binding; it does not force enrollment in CHM1025. It only alerts the students to what prior information that they should know in order to succeed in CHM 1045. Hence, it is not routinely administered. However, a sample of the chemistry placement test is distributed to students along with the course
syllabus for advisement purposes.
In a previous study, from 1986 through 1993 there were 2973 students registered in 105 sections of CHM 1045 at the Dale Mabry campus. 1528 were successful with a final grade of A, B, or C, or 50.5%. There were also 2628 students registered in CHM 1025 with 1332 successful or 50.8%. This also demonstrates that almost half of all CHM 1045 and CHM 1025 are not successful and some type of intervention is needed. In the study each course established mean success rate profiles while each faculty member's mean success rate for each different course taught was identified. The effects of part-time vs full-time faculty, days vs evening classes, time of day, and number of class meetings per week were some of the variables examined. Each faculty was provided a confidential profile beginning each year after the fourth year and the data was used for self and course improvement only. The data was never referenced in a faculty member's evaluation . One immediate result was faculty spent more time in the beginning to adjust students with deficient backgrounds into the lower level courses improving their success rates by having more qualified students in the beginning. Mandatory department finals were administered to check against grade inflation. Since the study was concluded, there are no longer mandated finals, less faculty adjustment, and decreased student success. The proposed study will require an update of the success rates previously established.
With declining enrollments in CHM 1025 and an increase in the number of students registered in CHM 1045 without the chemistry prerequisites, there is a need to implement new strategies to improve a student's chance to succeed in CHM 1045 with poor or no background in basic chemistry. The proposed computer enhanced instruction study outlined in this paper will include computer enhanced lectures, using multimedia presentations; Concept Test lecture inquires using the electronic Classroom Presentation System; tutorial software for students identified with basic chemical knowledge deficiencies; use of the Internet or stand alone software for guided inquiry or active learning exercises. Cooperative learning groups will be formed for the active learning sequences and the ConcepTest interventions.
This generates several smaller questions which will need to be addressed to answer the broader question posed above.
1. What are the current success rates for CHM 1045 at HCC? Success is defined as students exiting CHM 1045 with a final grade of A, B, or C.
2. How many of the students attempted the course with the proper prerequisite and does having the prerequisite affect the success rate? The prerequisites are those defined by the current college catalog.
3. Does the level of mathematical ability have an effect on the success rates? The math level is measured by the state college placement test plus completed college level math courses.
4. Using in-house prepared on-line chemistry placement and standardized American Chemical Society (ACS) paper and pencil placement tests, what effect, if any, does prior chemical knowledge have on the success rate for a student attempting college chemistry?
5 Do students identified as having deficient skills by the placement instruments have a better success rate in the course if they complete in-house tutorial programs than students identified with the same background who do not complete the tutorials?
6. Do students with one particular preferred learning style, have a better success rate in college chemistry that students with other preferred learning styles?
7. Do posed ConcepTest questions during lecture identify chemical misconceptions or misunderstandings act as a better signal for an intervention before actual exam then a traditional paper and pencil post lecture short quiz?
8. Do students using the active learning software module, Chemistry Explorer Series: The Atom score better on either the Atomic Theory modular exam or the Atomic theory section of the final exam?
9. Do students using ChemiCalc C3 software module utilized in an active learning unit score better on the Chemical Equations/Stoichiometry Modular exam and/or the similar section on the final exam?
10. Do students using the Chemistry Explorer Series: Gas Laws score better on the Gas Laws Modular exam and/or the similar section of the final exam?
11. Do students who watch applicable segments of the World of Chemistry video series and consequently complete a portion of their Gordon Rule writing assignment with guided reviews feel positive toward their experience versus writing a typical research type paper to complete this requirement?
12. Using the standardized ACS exams as pre-course and post-course measures of knowledge gained during the semester, do students receiving computer-assisted interventions achieve more comprehension of specific objectives than student receiving traditional instruction?
From 1983 to 1990, more than 300 major policy studies on mathematics and science education in the United States have been released (Tobias, 1990) -an average of almost one per week. Whatever the source of the perceived threat that produced the sense of crisis, the response is usually: something is wrong with the way science is taught, and we need to restructure science education. Scientists and science educators typically take three approaches to the perceived crisis in science education (Bodner, 1993):
(1) restructure the curriculum;
(2) increase efforts to attract young children to science
(3) convince public school teachers to change the way science is taught at the elementary and secondary levels.
History has shown that revising the curriculum is not enough, and demographics has shown that the problem is not the number of children interested in careers in science, but the rupturing of the scientific pipeline that occurs at the secondary and post-secondary level of education (Krieger, 1990). Changing the curriculum--the topics being taught--is not enough to bring about meaningful change in science education. The science community, especially at the post-secondary level, needs to rethink the way the curriculum is delivered.
There are two broad approaches to teaching chemistry or delivering the curriculum (Kellough, 1990). Traditionally, a chemistry instructor is an information giver (transmissionist), aAsage-on-the-stage, while in a more modern style the instructor facilitates student learning, stepping off the stage and being a Aguide-on-the-side. One is not better than the other, but today's instructor needs to utilize the best from each side. The ATraditional style and the AFacilitating are compared in the following tables:
Comparison of Traditional Style with Facilitating Style
Instructional modes are
|abstract learning||concrete learning|
|competitive learning||cooperative learning|
|demonstrations by instructor||student inquiry|
|some problem solving||problem solving|
These teaching styles are rooted in theoretical assumptions about learners and their development. Three theoretical positions stemming from psychological research in this century (Mosston-Ashworth, 1989) are:
1. The learner's mind is neutral-passive to good-active and the main focus of teaching should be the addition of new ideas to a subconscious store of old ones (tied to the theoretical positions of Romanticism-Maturationism) The key persons are Jean J. Rousseau and Sigmund Freud. The main instructional strategy is classical lecturing with rote memorization.
2. The learner's mind is neutral-passive with innate reflexes and needs, and the main focus in teaching should be on the successive, systematic changes in the learner's environment to increase the possibilities of desired behavioral responses (tied to the theoretical position of Behaviorism ). The key persons are John Locke, B. F. Skinner, A. H. Thorndike, and John Watson. The key instructional strategies include drill and practice with reinforcement/feedback which is the basis of programmed instruction.
3. The learner is a neutral-interactive purposive individual in a simultaneous interaction with the physical and biological environments. The main focus of instruction should be on facilitating the learner's gain of new perceptions which lead to desired behavioral changes that ultimately lead to a more fully-functioning individual (tied to the theoretical position of Cognitive-Experimentation) The key persons are Jerome Bruner, Arthur Combs, John Dewey, and Jean Piaget. The key instructional strategies include discovery and inquiry learning.
The predominant method of teaching science and mathematics in higher education is the lecture. Since the decade of the sixties, lecturers have adopted behaviorist philosophies of printed syllabi , behavioral / course objectives, and sample tests. The impact of technology on this teaching method is seen in the growing use ofAhome pages on the World Wide Web to post these materials. Most chemistry textbooks now include behavioral objectives in each chapter. A survey of the college bookstores at the 28 Florida community colleges indicate that all beginning chemistry and college chemistry courses offered in this state are requiring commercially-published textbooks. There are five or six Abest sellers on the market and most are not in their first edition. This implies a fairly static content. About thirty years ago, texts switched from descriptive chemistry to a focus on chemical principles (Bailar, 1993).
Over the last thirty years the books have gotten bigger and now include vivid color photographs and graphics to supplement the print. The content has only been modified to update or expand the material and in some case additional (not necessarily new) content has been added. All have excellent supplemental materials ranging from study guides and solutions manual to computer presentation software and videotapes for enhancement of lectures.
The task of classical lecturer in the medieval universities was to summarize the state of knowledge in their area of expertise, bringing together information from many sources to which the audience did not have access due to the state of the art in mass communication of information. But this is not the case in general chemistry courses today. Students have access to a two/four color comprehensive text, usually 1400 to 1600 pages, that provides them more than enough information. Lecturing has become theAcovering those portions of the vast amount text material that the instructor deems relevant to the course. Therefore, the chemistry lecturer summarizes the book for the student. This predominant mode of instruction in chemistry sends a clear signal to the students that they don't have to read the textbook that they spent $60 to $90 to purchase. All they have to do is to come to class and the instructor will >read' the important sections of the textbook for them.
ACovering the material is apparently central to the process of teaching first year college chemistry, but what does it mean Ato cover or Ato get through the material. Instructors often feel uncomfortable testing something they have not Acovered in class. The vocal students of today cry Afoul if something appears on the exam that has not been Acovered in class (lecture). Both groups appear to believe that Atelling is teaching .
There are at least three dimensions to effective chemistry pedagogy: chemistry-factual content, conceptual understanding, and problem solving (Black, 1993). While textbooks are content rich and instructors try to teach conceptual understanding and problem-solving skills, the net effect of the lecturerAcovering the material is to duplicate the content or the information aspect of the course.
According to the cognitive model (Nakhleh 1992), students build sensible and coherent understanding (cognitive structures) of the events and phenomena in their world from their own point of view. These elaborate cognitive structures are themselves composed of interrelated concepts. Each concept itself is formed by a linked set of simple, declarative statements, called propositions, that represent the body of knowledge the student possesses about that concept. The information students use to construct their concepts come from two sources: public knowledge, as presented in texts, lectures, and other methods of instruction; and informal prior knowledge from everyday experiences, parents, peers, commercial products, and the common meaning of scientific terms (Ebenezer, 1992).
Since students do build their own concepts; their constructions of a chemical concept sometimes differs from that of the science expert. In recent years, the science education literature has had many reports of studies relating to the identification, explanation, and amelioration of student difficulties in understanding science concepts. Such difficulties have been characterized in various ways, for example, as misconceptions (Fischer, 1983), alternative frameworks (Driver & Easley 1978), intuitive beliefs (McCloskey 1983), preconceptions (Anderson 1986), spontaneous reasoning (Viennot 1979), children's science (Osborne, et. al. 1983), and naive beliefs (Caramazza et.al. 1981).
A common definition of chemistry is the study of matter and the changes matter undergoes. Children's misconceptions about the particulate nature of matter has been documented and many student still hold to their childhood science concepts when they attempt chemistry later in life Doran (1972), Novick & Nussbaum (1978), Novick & Nussbaum (1981) , and Stavy (1991) .
All chemistry courses then focus on the state of matter. Stavy (1990) concluded in her study that only 50% of seventh grade students understood the conservation of matter in the process of evaporation. Shepherd & Renner (1982) found that no tenth grade student demonstrated a sound understanding of the state of matter and all had partial understandings and misunderstandings. They also found that twelfth graders had less of an understanding, thus dispelling the notion that students' grow out of misconceptions.
Middle school children's everyday notions of the concept of dissolving were investigated. It was found that misconceptions existed in 60% of the subjects and after two years 40% still had incorrect views (Longden et. al. 1991). Ask adults what happens when sugar dissolves in water and ask them to draw a picture of the particulate structure of the solution. Without conceptual understanding from instruction, the notions will be same as children.
According to Kuhn (1962) the birth of chemistry as a science was due to two factors: development of the chemistry of gases and the appreciation of weight relationships in chemical reactions. Mas and Perez (1987) investigated the adolescents' conceptions of gases that paralleled the history of chemistry. Their recommendation is that the first prerequisite for a chemistry teacher is to overcome the notion developed by children and held onto until adulthood that gases are substancesAwithout weight (75%).
Abraham, et. al. (1992) investigated five chemical concepts included in eighth grade texts: chemical change, dissolution, conservation-of-atoms, periodicity, and phase change. Their most striking conclusion was that the quantitative data indicated that the students did not have a conceptual understanding of any of these basic foundations of chemistry after the study of their text despite the researchers' opinion that the text presented the concepts in a reasonable and accurate manner. Their questions on an abstract periodic chart (of a distant planet) is mirrored on the American Chemical Society's standardized first semester college chemistry final examination.
BonJaoude (1992) demonstrated that learners who relate new knowledge to relevant concepts and propositions they already know (meaningful learners) were able to use information they acquire in science classes to correct misunderstandings. By creating meaningful links with concepts acquired in a chemistry course, they reduce overload and increase their processing capacity. On the other hand,Arote learners do not produce coherent understandings of scientific topics and elaborate cognitive structures to reason through science problems. He concluded that instructors should select a wide range of activities to give students diverse examples of scientific concepts.
Griffith and Preston (1992) identified 52 misconceptions the twelfth grade students have toward the fundamental characteristics of atoms and molecules. Of the 52, 19 were prevalent in over one third of the students and six in over 50%. A number of the subjects paralleled the ideas once held but are now discarded by scientists. These notions include that macroscopic shapes reflect molecular shapes, that matter is continuous, and that all nature is alive and sensitive.
Peterson & Treagust (1989) developed a 15-question, two tier, multiple choice test, the Covalent Bonding and Structure Diagnostic Instrument, through a validated concept map and a list of 33 propositional knowledge statements. The first tier of the test items consisted of content questions having two, three or four response choices. The second part contains four possible reasons for the answer given in the first part. The non-acceptable reasons for each item were based on students alternative views of the concepts and propositions. Eight major misconceptions (over 20% giving the same incorrect reason) were identified. The Australian researchers have provided this researcher with the test to use in this study and have given permission to make an electronic version which ultimately will be placed in a web document.
Cros et. al. (1986) and (1988) conducted two studies on the conceptions of 400 first-year university students at three schools in France. The first focused on the conceptions on the constituents of matter and notions of acids and bases. They followed with a study of the same students (now second year) on notions of chemistry after they had completed one year of college chemistry. It was found that students entering the university understood the constituents of matter, but that interactions between these constituents were either totally unknown or the subject of severe misconceptions. In their follow-up study of the same 400 students it was assessed that conceptions of students were often modified in the right way, but sometimes in the wrong way. Both studies indicate the students' knowledge tended to be qualitative and formal without a connection to everyday life.
The most recent study of misconceptions in chemistry was conducted in Spain by Furio and Calatayud (1996). They examined the difficulties college students have with geometry and polarity of molecules. They were surprised that college students had extreme difficulty with fundamental two-dimensional concepts such as:
(a) how to choose the central atom;
(b) how to complete its valence shell; and
(c) how to draw a Lewis dot structure.
In order to teach polarity and geometry, the authors concluded that three-dimensional visualization models are a must because students attempt to relate incorrectly two- dimensional dot structures to these topics.
More than twenty years of research on the student's alternative frameworks leads to the conclusion that teachers have to take them into account if they want to help the learner to acquire meaningful scientific knowledge, so providing the soundness of Ausubel's fundamental assumption of cognitive learning (Ausbel, 1968):
AThe most important single factor influencing learning is what the learners already know. Ascertain this and teach accordingly.@
To be successful in learning, students have to take possession of knowledge actively, by seeking explicit, conceptual linkages between new concepts and those they already possess. This process of elaborating personal, meaningful knowledge takes place by restructuring the already existing conceptual frameworks.
The concept map is a tool, based upon the cognitive psychologist theory of constructing meaning, developed by Novak and Gowin (1984) as a convenient and concise representation of the learner's concept/propositional framework of a domain-specific knowledge. The concepts with their linking relationships would beAvisible in a concept map as concept labels and verbal connectives, illustrating the organization of the concepts in the learner's cognitive structure. The chemistry teacher could then partly follow the restructuring and evolution of the cognitive structure by comparing successive concept maps constructed by the student himself/herself at different stages of the teaching and the learning process of a given topic. The concepts could so reveal:
(A) the concepts already present in a student's mind (initial concepts), including misconceptions;
(B) the conceptual linkages between the concepts (context);
(C) the evolution that takes place as consequence of teaching/learning activities (conceptual change).
Regis and Albertazzi (1996) reported on the successful use of cognitive maps in teaching chemistry over the last four years to over come 16-18 year olds chemical misconceptions, especially in the beginning of a course. Their focus at the beginning of the course is to use student concept maps ( 6 to 8 class periods needed for concept map training) to overcome misconceptions in the particulate model of matter and the conceptions of pure substances and chemical reactions.
George Bodner of Purdue University, who co-authored one of the more popular freshman chemistry texts, Chemistry: An Experimental Science (published by Wiley), reflects that his co-author, Harry Pardue, twenty five years ago suggested that the major problem in teaching chemistry is that student have to work in two different worlds, the molecular world in lecture and the macroscopic world of the laboratory. He then felt his colleagues were still over-simplifying the problem twenty years ago by adding a third world , the symbolic world of chemistry. The major problem is not only the macroscopic, molecular, and symbolic worlds, but the real world that seems to have no relationship to what we learn in chemistry. These ideas helped stimulate several federally-funded initiatives to create the final links between the four worlds.
One such project is ChemCom for high schools and another is Chemistry in Context for colleges. As evidenced by the state community college book store survey, the Chemistry in Context project has been adopted for the non-majors one semester introductory chemistry course for liberal arts students but not as a preparatory or college chemistry text.
A student's conceptual understanding is developed by working with concepts in the context of problems, trying to articulate them in a clear and concise manner, explaining them to others, and getting misconceptions corrected through discussion with someone more knowledgeable. Textbooks, no matter how well written, are clearly not responsive to the student and therefore fall short in teaching conceptual understanding. The research of the 1970's and 1980's on misconceptions in science and mathematics produced more findings for physics and biology than chemistry.
A Harvard physicist, Eric Mazur, recently developed the term ConcepTests. ConcepTests are conceptual questions posed during lecture along with a few possible answers. Students vote on possible answers, and then try to persuade their neighbors (collaborative groups in large lecture halls) that they are correct. Then either everyone or one member of the group votes again. This is followed by several possible forms of large group discussion. This is a form of peer instruction and provides the instructor with on-line feedback to provide immediate adjustment to the differences between student and instructor conceptual understandings. Mazur has established a library of ConcepTests questions for physics on the World Wide Web. Recently, many chemistry departments have adopted this format.
The Chemical Education Division of the American Chemical Society is housed at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. They established in 1996 a home site for ConcepTest for chemistry at http://www.chem.wisc.edu/~concept/. In addition to lists of questions, they recommend that:
A. When possible include pictures, symbols, charts, etc in addition to words. (Misconception research sited above indicates that students could not visually interpret the molecular world in multiple choice questions.)
B. Choose ConcepTests that focus on a critical concept and include common misconceptions as possible answers.
C. At first pass, try to test a single new concept in each question.
Rather than voice votes, students groups have been given colored place cards to hold up to show their vote (similar to football game audience participation). Some professors use credit or extra credit for responses. Others have given students blank transparencies to write out their answer for the group leader to demonstrate in the ensuing discussion phase.
The IBM Classroom Presentation Option (CPO) is a phone-wired electronic unit capable of automatically tabulating the results of the voting process through a laptop computer. It is no longer available from IBM (abandoned in 1991 with the shut down of IBM's higher education division, ACIS), but over 10,000 of the systems were produced and are in some closet at many institutions. This unit may have been aAproduct before its time for science instruction. HCC has the system and it will be utilized in this investigation.
The CHED Newsletter & Abstracts for Spring 1996 had only a few references concerning ConceptTests. The Spring 1997 CHED indicates over twenty presentations to be made at the Spring Meeting of the ACS on ConceptTests including by chemistry faculty from Brandeis University, Brown University, California State University, Clemson University, Michigan State University, University of Nebraska, and Purdue University. This demonstrates the growing popularity of the interactive lecture format focusing on conceptual understandings.
The Journal of Chemical Education has started an Exam Question Exchange column in its monthly publication in addition to their web site in response to ConcepTest movement. To be a ConcepTest item, the question must focus towards the correction of science misconceptions held by students entering chemistry classes.
Craig Bowen of the University of Southern Mississippi chaired an ACS Exam committee and published in 1996 a 60-question standardized General Chemistry Exam (conceptual). Both the representational formats - macroscopic, particulate, and symbolic - and the work on student misconceptions served as the framework to develop this exam. Several of the items deviate from the traditional, single-answer, multiple choice format. It should be noted that none of the ACS Exams are electronic, they are all paper and pencil with Scantron-type answer sheets for computer scoring.
As indicated above, the behaviorally-based model of instruction views teaching as a well-defined structured activity that can be taught as a set of skills. The behavioral approach to teaching these skills may vary from the traditional classroom lecture as shown above to approaches using technology, such as computer simulation. Striebel (1991), in his analysis of the use of computers in education, limited the use of equipment with the acceptance and use of only one theoretical framework, logical positivism and behavioral learning theory. This limited his analysis to only three ways computers may be used in education:Athe drill and practice approach , the tutorial approach, and the simulation and programming approach. Both Heinich (1991) and the Damarin (1991) reply to Stribel accepting the behavioral only position using only the three ways above computers are used in education. The tendency to equate computer use with a behavioral approach to teaching and learning is a primary characteristic of most critiques from the philosophical left (Sikula et. al. 1996).
The very first use of computers to instruct occurred at the University of Illinois in 1960 with a system called PLATO-Programmed Logic for Automatic-Teaching Operations. The original version of PLATO was very primitive, operated on a mainframe but it had all the elements of a complete system: computerized instruction, an authoring system, and a learning management system that continually tested the students understanding of the material and prescribed additional materials if the student need more help. Over 15,000 hours of instruction has been developed in PLATO based on the behavioral model. PLATO has a high school chemistry review with its college preparation software. Tutorial as well as drill and practice developed from PLATO and represented a logical extension of the programmed learning movement of the 1960's and the early 1970's. The behavioral models are well represented in the literature on technology, especially competency-based programs of drill and practice and tutorials. Most of the software up to the late 1980s were linear instruction with branches to correct errors, frames that divided information into hundreds of small bits, tell-and-test sequences, and long lists of behavioral objectives.
Fenrich (1996) describes four basic types of effective multimedia strategies for instructional design: drill and practice, tutorials, simulations, and adds educational games to the previous listing above. This continues to be a typical misconception that technology solutions apply only a behavioral approach. However, educational games bridges behavioral strategies and constructionist strategies. They are usually decision-making activities that include rules, goals, conditions, competition, strategies, and feedback.
Researchers at the University of Michigan (Kulik et al, 1986) constructed a meta-analysis of effectiveness of computer instruction in schools from elementary to collegiate levels. At that time computers in education were mainly used for routine drill and practice, for managing data, for word processing, and for programming information. Their studies concluded that computer-based instruction (CBI) had many positive features:
1. Student in CBI classes generally learned more. In 199 studies, student's average achievement scores rose from the 50th to the 61st percentile.
2. Students learned their lessons in two thirds of the time.
3. Students liked their classes more when they received help on the computer.
4. Students in CBI developed more positive attitudes towards computers.
The authors suggested that CBI may have fared better than traditional instruction because instruction was well designed and was presented in an attractive and engaging way with the inference traditional instruction might fare better if it were also well designed and attractively presented.
Toomey and Ketter (1995) concluded that research on the Interactive multimedia is not extensive. A meta-analysis of 38 studies of interactive video instruction found that overall achievement improved compared with more traditional instruction by about 0.5 standard deviations. Fletcher (1990) indicates that students in military training who scored in the 50th percentile improved to the 65th percentile with interactive video training and that the a direct correlation between the interactivity and effectiveness exists. A similar meta-analysis by McNeil and Nelson (1990) found a similar mean achievement effect.
Falk and Carlson (1991) concluded that use of multimedia in human service and teacher education can enhance learning on such measures as efficiency of learning, satisfaction with instruction received, skills developed, and content attainment.
Heinnich et al. (1996) adds active learning type software currently to he types mentioned above. These additional categories include Discovery and Problem Solving. This dispells the previous notion that all software is behavioral based and moves software into the constructivist movement. The text includes specifically the Logal Explorer Series in biology, chemistry, physics, and mathematics.
What is active learning? The literature is frequented with term. From article to article, there appears to be a continuous spectrum of how each author addresses the term. The origins of the term could be traced back to the Socratic process of the Greek and Roman eras as far as formal education is concerned. In this century, John Dewey (1924) in classic work, Democracy and Education, stated that learning isA something an individual does when he studies. It is an active, personally conducted affair . Many faculty feel >listening', >paying attention', or >being alert' involves the learner rather than signifying engagement with material being learned. (Stark et al. 1988). Ryan and Martens (1989) suggests a differentiation of the terms as follows: AStudents learn both passively and actively. Passive learning takes place when students take on the role of >receptacles of knowledge' ; that is, they do not directly participate in the learning process...Active learning more likely to take place when students are doing something besides listening.'
One end of the continuum would be the inattentive student sitting in a lecture daydreaming while the other end would be collaborative learning groups using any and all tools to solve real world problems, discovery the concepts in their inquiry. Bonwell and Eison (1991) suggest characteristics commonly associated with the use of strategies promoting active learning in the classroom:
(1) Students are involved in more than listening
(2) Less emphasis is placed on transmitting information and more on developing students skills.
(3) Students are involved in higher-order thinking (analysis, synthesis, evaluation).
(4) Students are engaged in activities (e.g., reading, discussing, writing).
(5) Greater emphasis is placed on students' explorations of their own attitudes and values.
For their text, they proposed that given the above characteristics that a working definition of active learning for the college classroom isAanything that involves students doing things and thinking about the things they are doing. (Bonwell & Eison,1991) Other educators more specifically stated the need for active learning in the college classroom as follows:
ALearning is not a spectator sport. Students do not learn much by just sitting in class listening to teachers, memorizing prepackaged assignments, and spiting out answers. They must talk about what they are leaning, write about what it, relate it to past experiences, apply it to their daily lives. They must make what they learn part of themselves.@ (Chickering & Gamson, 1987)
AStudents learn what they care about and remember what they understand.@ (Ericksen, 1984)
Awhen students are actively involved in ...learning..., they learn more that when they are passive recipients of instruction. A(Cross, 1987)
AStudents learn by becoming involved...Student involvement refers to the amount of physical and psychological energy that the student devotes to academic experience.@ (Astin, 1985).
The theory that people learn differently is a fairly new topic in educational psychology, one that has generated a lot of research activity in the last decade or two. Although college chemistry instructors are typically across the campus from the educational psychologist, the recent movements toward active learning, cooperative learning, study of misconceptions, and how to advance instruction beyond fact transmission to conceptual understanding and problem solving activities are bringing the natural sciences closer to the behavior scientists. Learning styles, also known as cognitive styles or learning preferences, are characteristic behaviors that indicate how students prefer to learn. More formally define: learning styles refers to a cluster of psychological traits that determine how an individual perceives, interacts with, and responds emotionally to learning environments.
Learning styles tend to be relatively stable over time (they are predictable), but you cannot expect completely static traits, variations occur in learning preferences from day to day and week to week. Most collaborative references indicate that the best cooperative groups mix students with different learning styles. To maximize student learning, chemistry instruction should consider learning styles and instruction should provide a variety activities that bridge to the various styles.
Studies indicate that students do have preferred learning styles, but in higher education (especially in general education courses with span the curriculum) students have to function in all the styles, despite their discomfort and frustrations. These studies have laid out numerous categories and preferences. Most of the studies includes parts or all of the following categories:
Active experimentation (AE) versus reflective observation(RO): AE learners like to try something and then think about the results, while the RO learner prefers to watch anf think about something before trying it.
Abstract conceptualization (AC) versus concrete experience (CE): AE learners like to think through a prospective action, while CE learners need to sense or feel the actual experience (Kolb 1972).
Right-brained activities versus left-brained activities: Right-brained learners are visually-orientated learners, while left-brainer learners are texted/symbol-orientated learners(Wonder & Donnovan, 1984) (Herrmann, 1988).
Environmental considerations: The light, sound, and temperature of the learning (classroom or study) environment differs with various learners. There is also a preference for a formal versus and informal design in the environmental setting (Dunn et al. 1982).
Social factors: Students have strong preferences about working alone, in a pair, with a peer, in groups/teams, teacher/adult, or varied.(Howell, 1986).
Physical factors: The time of day (or night) energy levels has an impact on learning preferences as well as kinesthetic learners who prefer and actually learn better when they touch and are physically involved in what they are learning (need for mobility). Other physical factors are perceptual strengths, physical well being, and need (or not needed) for intake.
Within each category, student preferences generally fall somewhere along the continuum between two opposite extremes. Very few students prefer the extremes. In general, each learning styles can produce equal achievement. However, one specific learning style can often suit a particular situation or class of material better than another. Also learning styles vary in different situations. Therefore, research has produced mixed results. Some researches have found a direct correlation between learning style and achievement, while others have found no significant link.
In 1991 the American Chemical Society formed the Task Force on the General Chemistry Curriculum in response to growing concern about first year chemistry courses. Since 1986, the mathematics community initiated a calculus reform movement which has resulted in 39 on-going projects with the Harvard Project, the most conservative and Project Calc at Duke University, the most radical. The chemistry community has had considerable pressure from the constructionist movement to re-evaluate not only what we teach but how we teach chemistry (Herschbach, 1993), (Brooks, 1992), (Fowler & Brooks, 1991), (Bowen, 1992), (Woodward et al., 1993), (Hurley, 1993), (Mahaffy, 1992), (Lapp et al., 1989) (Reigeluth, 1992), (Winn, 1991) (Cooper, 1993). After a two year dialogue with the chemistry community, the Task force adopted a plan to establish a mechanism for the ongoing reform of general chemistry, the Curriculum Reform in Chemistry Project (CRCP) (Spencer,1993) and (Rickard, 1993).
The CRCP's goal has been to generate comprehensive content, curricula, and delivery systems for the chemical sciences. To accomplish this goal the Project has been:
(A) initiating and soliciting curricular reform projects
(B) testing and evaluating new curricula and reforms
(C) disseminating the>new' pedagogy
The guiding principle of the CRCP is to empower teachers to develop their own curricular innovations in response to particular needs of their institutions, clientele, and the current reform movements in sciences. Chemistry teachers who had already been working on innovations and curricula change were clustered under three divisions.
The Laboratory-Centered Instruction Division provides one answer to the complaint that introductory courses devote too much time to the product of science and not enough time to the processes of science. This approach is to present chemistry as a way of investigating nature through inquiry-based laboratory centered activities, rather than a set of facts and concepts. Students see chemistry as a dynamic, investigative discipline rooted firmly in experimentation. Lectures are not supported here by a cook-book lab experience which is the norm at most schools. Lectures are out, lab stimulate the curricula through active-discovery based experimentation with the lecture time used for problem solving collaborative groups which may also employ technology.(Beasley, 1991), (Merritt et al., 1993), (Okebukola, 1986)
During the 1960's a similar project was adopted by high schools in response to the modern math movement. It was call Chem Study. It was discovery based chemistry through lab experiences, observations, and writing/journal their experiences.
The Zero-Based Division is what it says. Throw it all that is now general chemistry and justify anew each topic that is to be included in the course. The inclusion or exclusion of a topic is determined by what material is needed by students at later stages in their undergraduate experience, as post graduate professionals, citizens, and educated members of society. Two excellent projects have resulted: Chemistry in Context at the college level and ChemCom for the high schools.
The Core Curriculum Division is the least radical unit of the project where most of the traditional teachers feel comfortable to participate. This division has carried out an analysis of the core concepts and principles that must be understood if students are to achieve more than a superficial knowledge of chemistry. The central idea is that the general course could be organized around a few principles which could be covered in more detail (Spencer, 1991).
Hillsborough Community College
Technological interventions, active learning interventions, collaborative learning groups assigned by a learning styles inventory, interactive lectures with the classroom presentation system interventions, traditional video taped lectures to replace formal lectures, on-line drill and practice quizzes on both the intranet and the internet, and standardized entrance (diagnostic) and exit (achievement) exams will used as a possible solutions to the dilemma as to how to teach college chemistry without a basic chemistry knowledge and maintain or improve the current student success rates (about 50 %) in the first semester of the two semester sequence in general chemistry at Hillsborough Community College. The interventions may eliminate the need for the prerequisite high school chemistry or basic chemistry course.
The interventions will consist of four parts. They include:
1) The first will be a battery of standardized placement tests including the misconception identifications as well as basic chemical knowledge.
2) The second will be required multimedia treatments prior to each CHM 1045 unit for those with deficient skills identified by the placement instruments and/or the student demographics. To make it a quasi-controlled experiment, each professor participating in the study must be assigned to teach at least two sections of CHM 1045 or previously within the last two years taught CHM 1045 as a control group (only demographics may be collected without pre-post test data). The experimental group(s) will receive in addition to the professor's normal or previous course processes (tutors, one-on-one, collaborative study groups, etc), the experimental intervention treatments. The other group will not have access to the interventions.
3) The third part will require each student to post test the same battery of testing at the end of the course previously administered before the interventions of standardized exams.
4) The fourth part will be a common final of all experimental sections utilizing the American Chemical Society (ACS) Standardized exams. All the interventions including testing will be administered using CBT software developed by the researcher so that all data is collected in specially designed data bases which will lend to post experimental statistical manipulation.
a) Define the Prerequisite Objectives for General Chemistry
A questionnaire will be prepared and administered to participating college chemistry teachers in the Florida section of the ACS Chemical Education Division to verify the absolute essential skills needed as prerequisite success to college chemistry. Those skills preferred but not essential for college chemistry success will also be identified. ACS, state, and college guidelines will be researched to determine the list of skills to be surveyed. Each college's course goals and objectives, entry and exit criterion in use, and textbooks in use will also be identified.
b) Identify Testing Instruments for Study
A second step is to identify the instruments to be used, secure the permissions to computerize the instruments (if they do not exist in electronic form), or possibly use validated questions from several sources to create an in-house electronic version. The California Placement test (paper and pencil) developed by the American Chemical Society will be used as the diagnostic instrument for entry behaviors. The Covalent Bonding and Structure Diagnostic Instrument will be computerized and administered to identify chemical bonding misconceptions prior to the bonding unit. The standardized American Chemical Society first semester general chemistry final as well as the shorter conceptual version will be administer as the exit final exam and the pre-Final test for post course evaluation (both test paper and pencil). Computerized Item analysis of these tests are available and will be utilized to test for successes and non-success with the interventions.
The Kolb (1972) LSI-Learning Styles Inventory as well as the Ellis (1991) Discovery Wheel will be computerized and used to place students into collaborative learning groups and alert the student to possible study behavior deficiencies.
c) Prepare Multimedia Interventions
A third step will be to build a multimedia platform (using Asymetrix Toolbook) that will provide the treatment for identified deficiencies. Toolbook will allow other software programs to be launch within a tutorial window for multitasking. Discovery learning tasks will be included, if possible. Toolbook has a built in course management system,
using a Paradox data base engine. It allows interactive multimedia immediate or delayed feedback to student responses, as well as complete transcripts of student activity including response times or time on tasks.
The commercial active learning modules of Logal's Chemistry Explorer Series will be used for the units on the atom and Gas laws. The Chemical Calculations Corporation's Chem-i-cal software will be used to support the instructor's active learning module on the stoichiometry unit. The ACS-JCE Software: Periodic Table Games will be used for names and formula instruction. Active Learning modules will be developed utilizing the ACS-JCE Software: The Periodic Table Live for full motion video discover of the elements and their chemical activity.
A special polyatomic ion discovery exercise will be developed using Toolbook and card-board cut outs to instruct Lewis Dot Structures as well as algorithmic approach to polyatomic ions versus the traditional memorized list of 30 plus ions. Other software modules will be developed to interlace the units supported by commercial software packages.
d) Solicitation for Experimental Groups
Decisions will have to made on the number of experimental groups necessary for the study as well as the number of different schools to participate in the study. Participating schools must provide the researcher with their normal success rate for students in CHM 1045 both before and after experimentation as well as student demographics necessary to stratify the testing population. Multimedia labs must be available at participating schools for experimental sites beyond the chemistry classroom and software licences for the commercial software must be obtained for the study. Success rate data will have to be determined for each instructor participating in the study as well as data from previous classes be shared with the researcher. Human experiment releases will need to be obtained from all participants in the study.
e) Setup the Term or Terms for Experimentation
This project should be carried out during major Fall or Spring terms. A pilot study will be conducted the term before the term(s) that will implement the full study. The pilot study is projected to begin the Fall 1997 and no later than the Spring term 1998.
f) The Experimental Results
Success will be determined for stratified groups (those with the prerequisites, those without the prerequisites, those with the prerequisites who pretest with current
background deficiencies) by final course grades of A, B, or C.
Anderson, B. (1986), Pupils' explanation of some aspects of chemical reactions, Science Education, 70(5), 549-563.
Bailar, John C. (1993). First-year college chemistry textbooks, Journal of Chemical Education, 70(9), 696-698.
Black, Kersey A., 1993. What to do when you stop lecturing, Journal of Chemical Education, 70(2), 140-141
Bodner, George M. (1992)., Why changing the curriculum may not be enough, Journal of Chemical Education, 69(3),186-190
BouJaoude, S. (1992). The Relationships between students' learning strategies and the change in misunderstandings during a high school chemistry course. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 29(7), 687-699.
Caramazza, A., McCloskey, M., & Green, B. (1981). Naive beliefs inAsophisticated subjects: misconceptions about trajectories of objects. Cognition, 9, 117-123
Doran, R. (1972). Misconceptions of selected science concepts held by elementary school students, Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 9(2), 127-137.
Driver, R. & Easley, J. (1978). Pupils and paradigms: A review of the literature related to concept development in adolescent science students. Studies in Science Education, 5. 61-84.
Ebenezer, J. (1992). Making chemistry learning more meaningful, Journal of Chemical Education, 69(2), 464-467.
Fisher, K.(1983), Amino acids translation: A misconception in biology. In H. Helms & J. D. Novak (eds) Proceedings of the International Seminar: Misconceptions in Science and Mathematics. p1
Furio, C. & Calatayud, M. (1996). Difficulties with geometry and polarity of moleculers: beyond misconceptions, Journal of Chemical Education, 73(1), 36-41.
Kellough, Richard D. A Resource Guide for Effective Teaching in Postsecondary Education; University Press of America, New York, pp 57-71; 1990
Krieger, J., Chemical Engineering and News 1990.(June 11), p27
Kuhn, T.S. (1962). The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, University of Chicago Press: Chicago.
Longden, K., Black, P., & Solomon, J. (1991). Children's interpretation of dissolving. International Journal of Science Education. 13(1), 59-68.
Mas, C.J.F. & Perez, J.H. (1987). Parellels between adolescents' conception of gases and the history of chemistry. Journal of Chemical Education, 64(7), 616-618.
McCloskey, M. (1983), Intuitive physics, Scientific American, 248 122-130
Mosston,J., and S. Ashworth. The Spectrum of Teaching Styles. New York: Longman, 1989
Nakheih, M. (1992). Why some students don't learn chemistry, Journal of Chemical Education, 69(3), 191-196.
Novick, S. & Nussbaum, J. (1978). Junior high hupils' understanding of the particulate nature of matter: An interview study, Science Education, 62(3), 273-281.
Novick, S. & Nussbaum, J. (1981). Pupil's Understanding of the particulate nature of matter: a cross-age study. Science Education, 65(2), 187-196.
Osborne, R., Bell, B., & Gilbert, Y. (1983). Science teaching and children's view of the world. European Journal of Science education, 5, 1-14.
Peterson, R. & Treagust, D. (1989). Development and application of a diagnostic instrument to evaluate grade-11 and -12 students' concepts of covalent bonding and structure following a course of instruction, Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 26(4), 301-314
Shepherd, D. & Renner, J. (1982). Student understanding and misunderstandings of a states of matter and density changes, School Science and Mathematics, 82(8), 650-665.
Stavy, R. (1990). Children's conception of changes in state of matter: From liquid (or solid) to gas. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 27(3), 247-266.
Stavy, R. (1991). Children's ideas about matter, School Science and Mathematics, 91(6), 240-244.
Tobias, Sheila; They're Not Dumb. They're Different Stalking the Second Tier; Research Corporation: Tucson,Az, 1990, p7.
Viennot, L. (1979). Spontaneous reasoning in elementary dynamics, European Journal of Science Education, 1, 205-221
According to Book Buyers' Guide 1997
Journal of Chemical Education
Atkins, P. W. and J. A. Beran, General Chemistry, 2nd (Updated) Edition, W.H. Freeman, 1993.
Atkins, Peter W. and Loretta Jones, Chemistry: Molecules, Matter, and Change, 3rd Edition, W. H. Freeman, 1997 (CD-ROM available).
Birk, J. P., Chemistry, 1st Edition, Houghton Mifflinm, 1994.
Bodner, George and Harry Pardue, Chemistry: An Experimental Science, 2nd Edition, John Wiley & Sons, 1995.
Brady James E. and John R. Holum, Chemistry: The Study of Matter and Its Changes, 2nd Edition, John Wiley & Sons, 1996.
Brady, James E., General Chemistry: Principles and Structures, 5th Edition, John Wiley & Sons, 1990.
Fine, Leonard W., Chemistry for Engineers and Scientists, 1st Edition, Saunders College Publishing, 1990.
Brown, Theodore, Eugene LeMay, Jr. and Bruce Bursten, Chemistry: The Central Science, 7th Edition, Prentice Hall, 1997.
Chang, Raymond, Chemistry, 5th Edition, McGraw-Hill, 1994.
Ebbing, Darrell D., General Chemistry, 5th Edition, McGraw-Hill, 1996.
Hand, C. W., General Chemistry, 1st Edition, Saunders College Publishing, 1994.
Hill, John W. and Ralph H. Petrucci, General Chemistry, 1st Edition, Prentice Hall, 1996.
Hill, John W. and Ralph H. Petrucci, General Chemistry: Selected Topics, 1st Edition, Prentice Hall, 1996.
Kask, Uno and David J. Rawn, General Chemistry, 1st Edition, Wm. C. Brown, 1993.
Kotz, J. C., M. D. Joesten, J. L.Wood and J. W. Moore, The Chemical World: Concepts and Applications, 1st Edition, Saunders College Publishing, 1994.
Kotz, John C. and Paul Treichel, Chemistry and Chemical Reactivity, 3rd Edition, Saunders College Publishing, 1996.
Masterton, William L. and Cecile N. Hurley, Chemistry - Principles and Reactions, 3rd Edition, Saunders College Publishing, 1997.
McMurry, John and Robert C. Fay, Chemistry, 1st Edition, Prentice Hall, 1995.
Olmsted, J. A. and G. M. Williams, Chemistry: The Molecular Science, 2nd Edition,
Wm. C. Brown, 1997.
Oxtoby, David W., N. H. Nachtrieb, W. A. Freeman, Chemistry: Science of Change, 2nd Edition, Saunders College Publishing, 1994.
Petrucci, Ralph H. and William S. Harwood, General Chemistry: Principles and Modern Applications, 7th Edition, Prentice Hall, 1997.
Radel, Stanley R. and Marjorie H. Navidi, Chemistry: Principles and Practice, 2nd Edition, Brooks/Cole, 1994.
Reger, Daniel L. Scott R. Goode and Edward E. Mercer, Chemistry: Principles and Practice, 2nd Edition, Saunders College Publishing, 1997.
Robinson, William R. Henry F. Holtzclaw Jr. and Jerome D. Odom, General Chemistry, 10th Edition, Houghton Mifflin Company, 1997.
Robinson, William R. Henry F. Holtzclaw Jr. and Jerome D. Odom, General Chemistry with Qualitative Analysis,10th Edition, Houghton Mifflin Company, 1997.
Robinson, William R. Henry F. Holtzclaw Jr. and Jerome D. Odom, Essentials of General Chemistry, 10th Edition, Houghton Mifflin Company, 1997.
Russell, John B., General Chemistry, 2nd Edition, McGraw Hill, 1992.
Silberberg, M. S., Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter and Change, 1st Edition, Mosby-Year Book, 1995.
Umland, Jean B. and J. Michael Bellama, General Chemistry, 2nd Edition, Brooks/Cole, 1996.
Whitten, K. W., R. E. Davis and M. L. Peck, General Chemistry, 5th Edition, Saunders College Publishing, 1995.
Whitten, K. W., R. E. Davis and M. L. Peck, General Chemistry with Qualitative Analysis, 5th Edition, Saunders College Publishing, 1995.
Zumdahl, Steven S., Chemical Principles, 2nd Edition, Houghton Mifflin, 1995.
Zumdahl, Steven S., Chemistry, 4th Edition, Houghton Mifflin, 1997.
AA Real World Applications Course@
according to Book Buyers' Guide 1997
Journal of Chemical Education
American Chemical Society; A. Truman Schwartz, Diane Bunce, Robert G. Silberman, Conrad L. Stanitski, Wilmer J. Stratton and Arden P. Zipp, Chemistry in Context, 2nd Edition, Wm. C. Brown, 1997.
Beard, James M., Chemistry, Energy and the Environment, 1st Edition, Wuerz Publishing Ltd., 1994.
Eaton, Donald R., The Restless Biosphere: An Introduction to the Chemistry of Gaia, 1st Edition, Wuerz Publishing Ltd., 1992.
Gebelein, Charles G., Chemistry and Our World, 2nd Edition, Wm. C. Brown, 1997.
Gray, Harry B., John D. Simon and William C. Trogler, Braving the Elements, University Science Books, 1995.
Hill, John W. and Doris K. Kolb, Chemistry for Changing Times, 7th Edition, Prentice Hall, 1995.
Joesten, M. D., and J. L. Wood, World of Chemistry, 2nd Edition, Saunders College Publishing, 1996.
Joesten, M. D., and J. L. Wood, World of Chemistry Essentials, 1st Edition, Saunders College Publishing, 1993.
Lowe, J. N., Worlds of Chemistry: A Text for Liberal Arts Students, 1st Edition, Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, 1989.
Lowe, J. N., Chemistry, Industry, and the Environment, 1st Edition, Wm. C. Brown, 1994.
Miller, G. Tyler and David Lygre, Chemistry, A Contemporary Approach, 3rd Edition, Brooks/Cole Publishing Company, 1991.
Seeger, L. Spencer and Michael R. Siabaugh, Chemistry for Today: General, Organic and Biochemistry, 2nd Edition, West Publishing, 1994.
Sherman, Allan and Sharon Sherman, Chemistry and Our Changing World, 3rd Edition, Prentice Hall, 1991.
Snyder, Carl H., The Extraordinary Chemistry of Ordinary Things, 2nd Edition, John Wiley & Sons, 1995.
Stine, William R., Applied Chemistry, 3rd Edition, Houghton Mifflin, 1994.
Stoker, H. Stephen, Chemistry - A Science for Today, 1st Edition, Macmillan, 1989.
Wiegand, H. Gayl, Models of Matter: Principles and Perspectives of Chemistry, 1st Edition, Brooks/Cole, 1995.
according to Book Buyers' Guide 1997
Journal of Chemical Education
Burns, Ralph A., Essentials of Chemistry, 2nd Edition, Prentice Hall, 1995.
Burns, Ralph A., Fundamentals of Chemistry, 2nd Edition, Prentice Hall, 1995.
Carroll, Harvey E., Preview of Chemistry, 1st Edition, John Wiley & Sons, 1989.
Corwin, Charles H., Concepts and Connections, 1st Edition and 1st Alternate Edition, Prentice Hall, 1994.
Daub, G. W., and W. S. Seese, In Preparation for College Chemistry, 7th Edition, Prentice Hall, 1995.
Dewey, F., Understanding Chemistry: A Brief Introduction, 1st Edition, Brooks/Cole, 1994.
Dickson, T. R., Introduction to Chemistry, 7th Edition, John Wiley and Sons, 1995.
Driscoll, Jerry A., Introduction to College Chemistry, 1st Edition, Kendall/Hunt, 1994.
Ebbing, Darrell D. and R. A. D. Wentworth, with James P. Birk, Introductory Chemistry, 1st Edition, Houghton Mifflin, 1995.
Gendell, Julien, Basic Chemistry: A Problem-solving Approach, 1st Edition, Brooks/Cole, 1993.
Glendell, J., Basic Chemistry: A Problem-Solving Approach, 1st Edition, West Publishing, 1993.
Goldberg, David E., Fundamentals of Chemistry, 1st Edition, Wm. C. Brown, 1994.
Hardwick, R. and J. Bouillon, Introduction to Chemistry, 1st Edition, Saunders College Publishing, 1993.
Hardwick, R. and J. Bouillon, Introduction to Chemistry-Extended Edition, 1st Edition, Saunders College Publishing, 1993.
Hein, Morris and Susan Arena, Foundations of College Chemistry, 9th Edition, (Alternate and Brief Editions also available), Brooks/Cole, 1996.
Herron, J. Dudley, Understanding Chemistry, 2nd Edition, McGraw-Hill, 1986.
Krimsley, Victor S., Introductory Chemistry, 2nd Edition (Alternate Edition also available), Brooks/Cole, 1995.
Kroschwitz, J. I., M. Winokur, Chemistry: A First Course, 3rd Edition, McGraw-Hill, 1987.
Kroschwitz, Jacqueline I., Mecuin Winokur and Bryan A. Lees, Chemistry: A First Course, 3rd Edition, Wm. C. Brown, 1995.
Michels, Leo, A Basic Math Approach to Concepts in Chemistry, 6th Edition, Brooks/Cole, 1996.
Peters, E. I. and R. C. Kowerski, Basic Chemical Principles, 2nd Edition, Saunders College Publishing, 1994.
Peters, E. I. and R. C. Kowerski, Introduction to Chemical Principles, 6th Edition, Saunders College Publishing, 1994.
Rife, William C., Essentials of Chemistry, 1st Edition, Saunders College Publishing, 1992.
Rife, William C., Essentials of Chemistry-Extended Version, 1st Edition, Saunders College Publishing, 1993.
Sevenair, John P., Introductory Chemistry: Investigating the Molecular Nature of Matter, 1st Edition, Wm. C. Brown Publishers, 1997.
Sherman, Alan, Sharon J. Sherman and Leonard Russikoff, Basic Concepts of Chemistry, 6th Edition, Houghton Mifflin, 1996.
Siebert, E., Foundations of Chemistry, 1st Edition, Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, 1982.
Stoker, H. Stephen, Introduction to Chemical Principles, 5th Edition, Prentice Hall, 1996.
Stoker, H. Stephen, Preparatory Chemistry, 4th Edition, Prentice Hall, 1995.
Wolfe, Drew H., Introduction to College Chemistry, 2nd Edition, McGraw-Hill, 1988.
Zumdahl, Steven S., Introductory Chemistry, 3rd Edition, (three available versions: Basic Chemistry, Introductory Chemistry, and Introductory Chemistry: A Foundation), Houghton Mifflin, 1996.
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