An Introduction to Chemistry: Atoms First - Mark Bishop

 

CHM 1025C:  Modules One & Two Vocabulary

                         Chapters 1, 2 and 3.1-3.3

Bishop Chapter 1:

Chemistry – The Study of the structure and behavior of matter.

 

Value – A number and a unit that together represent the result of a measurement or calculation.

 

Unit – A defined quantity based on a standard.

 

Base units – The seven unit from which all other units in the SI system of measurement are derived.

 

Mass – The amount of matter in an object.

 

Weight – A measure of the force of gravitational attraction between an object and a significant large object such as the earth or the moon.

 

Matter – Anything that has mass and occupies space.

 

Absolute Zero – Zero kelvins (0 K), (the lowest possible temperature, equivalent to -273.15 oC). It is a point beyond which motion can no longer be decreased.

 

Precision – The closeness  in value of a series of measurements of a series of measurements of the same entity.

 

Accuracy – How closely a measured value approaches the true value of a property.

 

Bishop Chapter 2:

Unit Analysis – A general technique for doing unit conversions.

 

Conversion factor (or Unit Factor) – A ratio that describes the relationship between two units.

 

Significant figures – The number of meaningful digits in a value, reflecting the value’s degree of uncertainty.

 

Density – Mass divided by volume or mass per unit volume.

 

 

 

 

 

Bishop Chapter 3.1, 3.2, 3.3:

 

Model – A simplified approximation of reality

 

Solid – The state in which a substance has a definite shape and   volume at a constant temperature

 

Liquid- The state in which a substance has a constant volume at a constant temperature but can change its shape.

 

Gas – the state in which a substance can easily change shape and volume.

 

Vaporization (also called evaporation) – The conversion of a liquid to a gas

 

Element – A substance that can not be chemically converted into a simpler substance in which all the atoms have the same number of protons and therefore the same chemical characteristics.

 

Group or family – All the elements in a given column on the periodic table

 

Metals – The elements that (1) have a metallic luster (2) conduct heat and electric currents well (ductile) and (3) are malleable

 

Nonmetals – The elements that do not have the characteristics of metals

 

Metalloids or semimetals – The elements that have some but not all the characteristics of metals

 

Representative elements (also called Main Group elements) – The elements of Groups 1, 2, and 13 through 18 (the “A” Groups” on the periodic table

 

Transitional metals – The elements in Groups 3 through 12 (the “B” Groups) on the periodic table

 

Inner transitional metals – the 28 elements at the bottom of the periodic table.

 

Periods (or rows) – The horizontal rows of the periodic table.

 

Additional Words (from Lecture, words mention in the text, from Labs, and from other books)

 

Science - The methodical exploration of nature and logical explanation of the observations

 

Experiment - A scientific procedure for gathering data and recording observations under controlled conditions

 

Scientific Method - A systematic investigation that entails performing an experiment, proposing a hypothesis, testing the hypothesis, and stating a theory or law.

 

Hypothesis - A tentative proposal of a scientific principle that attempts to explain the meaning of a set of data collected in an experiment.

 

Theory - An extensively tested proposal of a scientific principle that explains the behavior of nature.

 

Alchemist - A pseudoscience that attempted to convert a base metal such as lead to gold; a medieval science that sought to discover a universal cure for disease and a magic potion for immortality.

 

Inorganic Chemistry - The study of chemical substances that do not contain carbon

 

Organic Chemistry  - The study of chemical substances that contain carbon.

 

Biochemistry - The study of chemical substances derived from plants and animals.

 

Scientific law (or natural law) - An extensively tested proposal of a scientific principle that states a measurable relationship under different experimental conditions

 

Physical State - The condition of matter existing as a solid, liquid, or gas.

 

Physical Change - A property that can be observed without changing the formula of a substance.

 

Physical Property - A property that can be observed without changing the formula of a substance.

 

Sublimation - A direct change of state from a solid to a gas.

 

Deposition - A direct change of state from a gas to a solid

 

Heterogeneous Mixture - Matter having an indefinite composition and variable properties.

 

Homogeneous Mixture - Matter having a definite composition, but variable properties.

 

Pure Substance (or Substance) - Matter having a definite composition and constant properties.

 

Alloy - A homogeneous mixture of two or more metals

 

Compound - A pure substance that can be broken down into simpler substances.

 

Atom - Smallest particle that represents an element.

 

Molecule - A single particle composed of two or more nonmetals.

 

Chemical Symbol – An abbreviation for the name of an element.

 

Chemical Formula - An abbreviation for the name of a compound.

 

Chemical Property - A property that cannot be observed without changing the formula of a substance.

 

Chemical Change - A modification of a substance that alters the chemical composition

 

Atomic Number - A number that identifies a particular element.

 

Periodic Chart (or Periodic Table) - A chart that arranges elements according to their properties.

 

Potential Energy - The stored energy that matter possesses owing to its position or composition

 

Kinetic Energy - The energy associated with the mass and velocity of a particle.