An Introduction to Chemistry: Atoms First - Mark Bishop
CHM 1025C: Modules One & Two Vocabulary
Chapters 1, 2 and 3.1-3.3
Bishop Chapter 1:
Chemistry The Study of the structure and behavior of matter.
Value A number and a unit that together represent the result of a measurement or calculation.
Unit A defined quantity based on a standard.
Base units The seven unit from which all other units in the SI system of measurement are derived.
Mass The amount of matter in an object.
Weight A measure of the force of gravitational attraction between an object and a significant large object such as the earth or the moon.
Matter Anything that has mass and occupies space.
Absolute Zero Zero kelvins (0 K), (the lowest possible temperature, equivalent to -273.15 oC). It is a point beyond which motion can no longer be decreased.
Precision The closeness in value of a series of measurements of a series of measurements of the same entity.
Accuracy How closely a measured value approaches the true value of a property.
Bishop Chapter 2:
Unit Analysis A general technique for doing unit conversions.
Conversion factor (or Unit Factor) A ratio that describes the relationship between two units.
Significant figures The number of meaningful digits in a value, reflecting the values degree of uncertainty.
Density Mass divided by volume or mass per unit volume.
Bishop Chapter 3.1, 3.2, 3.3:
Model A simplified approximation of reality
Solid The state in which a substance has a definite shape and volume at a constant temperature
Liquid- The state in which a substance has a constant volume at a constant temperature but can change its shape.
Gas the state in which a substance can easily change shape and volume.
Vaporization (also called evaporation) The conversion of a liquid to a gas
Element A substance that can not be chemically converted into a simpler substance in which all the atoms have the same number of protons and therefore the same chemical characteristics.
Group or family All the elements in a given column on the periodic table
Metals The elements that (1) have a metallic luster (2) conduct heat and electric currents well (ductile) and (3) are malleable
Nonmetals The elements that do not have the characteristics of metals
Metalloids or semimetals The elements that have some but not all the characteristics of metals
Representative elements (also called Main Group elements) The elements of Groups 1, 2, and 13 through 18 (the A Groups on the periodic table
Transitional metals The elements in Groups 3 through 12 (the B Groups) on the periodic table
Inner transitional metals the 28 elements at the bottom of the periodic table.
Periods (or rows) The horizontal rows of the periodic table.
Additional Words (from Lecture, words mention in the text, from Labs, and from other books)
Science - The methodical exploration of nature and logical explanation of the observations
Experiment - A scientific procedure for gathering data and recording observations under controlled conditions
Scientific Method - A systematic investigation that entails performing an experiment, proposing a hypothesis, testing the hypothesis, and stating a theory or law.
Hypothesis - A tentative proposal of a scientific principle that attempts to explain the meaning of a set of data collected in an experiment.
Theory - An extensively tested proposal of a scientific principle that explains the behavior of nature.
Alchemist - A pseudoscience that attempted to convert a base metal such as lead to gold; a medieval science that sought to discover a universal cure for disease and a magic potion for immortality.
Inorganic Chemistry - The study of chemical substances that do not contain carbon
Organic Chemistry - The study of chemical substances that contain carbon.
Biochemistry - The study of chemical substances derived from plants and animals.
Scientific law (or natural law) - An extensively tested proposal of a scientific principle that states a measurable relationship under different experimental conditions
Physical Change - A property that can be observed without changing the formula of a substance.
Physical Property - A property that can be observed without changing the formula of a substance.
Sublimation - A direct change of state from a solid to a gas.
Deposition - A direct change of state from a gas to a solid
Heterogeneous Mixture - Matter having an indefinite composition and variable properties.
Homogeneous Mixture - Matter having a definite composition, but variable properties.
Pure Substance (or Substance) - Matter having a definite composition and constant properties.
Alloy - A homogeneous mixture of two or more metals
Compound - A pure substance that can be broken down into simpler substances.
Atom - Smallest particle that represents an element.
Molecule - A single particle composed of two or more nonmetals.
Chemical Symbol An abbreviation for the name of an element.
Chemical Formula - An abbreviation for the name of a compound.
Chemical Property - A property that cannot be observed without changing the formula of a substance.
Chemical Change - A modification of a substance that alters the chemical composition
Atomic Number - A number that identifies a particular element.
Periodic Chart (or Periodic Table) - A chart that arranges elements according to their properties.
Potential Energy - The stored energy that matter possesses owing to its position or composition
Kinetic Energy - The energy associated with the mass and velocity of a particle.