CHM 2045C Module Three Assignment Outline
Module three covers parts of Chapters 2, 7, and 8. If you use the grading outline, the key reference sections are listed under each part:
Module Three Part I: Atomic Theory & The Periodic Chart (Chapter 2, 7, 8)
M. _____ (15) Multiple Choice I Lecture]
_______(65) Total = ______%
First begin reading Chapter 2. In section 2.1 there is a brief history of the discovery of protons, neutrons, electrons, and the nucleus of an atom. What is important is that you know the mass and charge differences in these particles and their location.
Then after reading Section 2.2 you should be able to complete Module 3 Part A.
Section 2.3 introduces the concept of isotopes which then distinguishes the difference between mass number and atomic mass. We will do none of the calculations from section 2.3, but you must know the difference between these two important definitions.
You may skip sections 2.4 and 2.5 which will be covered in module 5 in a few weeks.
Section 2.6 has partially been covered in Module 1, Element Classification, but you should also know the difference between a period and group/family of elements from this discussion.
All of chemistry is knowing where the electrons are and where they are NOT. Once you understand this, molecules will make more sense. So before we go to Chapter 3 and Module 4, we need to examine closely electron configuration in Module 3 Part B and more Periodic Properties.
We skip back to Chapter 7. After reading sections 7.1, 7.2, and 7.3 the author lays the ground work for how the scientists used spectra analysis to develop the modern theory of the atom. The main concept from these three sections is that electrons outside the nucleus are found in energy levels or energy shells. This establishes the concept of the Principle Quantum Number n.
Section 7.4 introduces the wave properties of the electrons. All four of these sections have some difficult calculations, which we will skip this summer. You are not expected to do any of the calculation from these sections. We may do this as a Lab exercise to look at Spectra.
Next section 7.5 introduces three of the four quantum numbers. You will be expected in the multiple choice section of Module 3 to interpret good and bad sets of quantum numbers. On page 328 questions 27-44 are good examples of Quantum Number interpretation.
Every electron has four quantum numbers assigned so that you can place the electron in the correct atomic orbital. The Principle Quantum Number describes the electron energy level: m=1,2,3,4,5,6,7....
The Angular Momentum Quantum Number l=0,1,2,3.... describes which type of orbital the electron populates. Sometimes, this quantum number is referred to as the Orbital Quantum Number. l=0 means a "s" orbital, l=1 means a "p" orbital.
Section 7.6 finally introduces the concepts of the Orbital and their shapes. On page 321 there is a discussion of nodal surfaces in an orbital. If you understand the concept of nodal surfaces, you can answer a critical thinking question: "Why are their no "p" orbital electrons on the first energy level? Why are there no "d" orbital electrons on the first or second energy level?"
The principle quantum numbers tells us that each energy level has n2† (squared) orbitals with n-1 nodal surfaces. The fifth energy level has a "theoritical" maximum number of orbitals of 25 (or 50 total electrons). There is an online movie which explains the shapes of the orbitals and nodal surfaces of each orbital:
The author waits till section 8.1 to describe the fourth quantum number: spin. With each electron assigned four quantum numbers, then Pauli Exclusion Principle in section 8.2 makes sense. You should understand this concept for a multiple choice question.
Sections 8.3 and 8.4 finally get to the heart of Module 3, electron configuration of the atoms. On page 344 is a complete list of the Spectroscopic Notation (Chemist's Shorthand) of all the known elements. In Part B you are responsible for writing the electron configuration for any element from numbers #1 through #86 (first six rows of the periodic table).
There are several interactive or multimedia web sites to support you understanding of Part B of Module 3. There are two sites which require you to first download a plug-in called neuron. Please download this plug-in. Download Neuron 2004 to your desktop. Double click on the neuron icon and it will self install. Then you can play two sites:
Now you can see the demonstration of the electron filling sequence from orbital to orbital:
plus the filling sequence rules.
If you have QuickTime movie plug-in installed on your computer, there is a short tutorial with sound demonstrating the first few energy level filling sequence an rules:
There is a very similar movie with sound in the ChemistryNOW site for section 8.3 and 8.4 online.
If Neuron is working properly, you can use the Interactive electron configuration web site:
as an alternate, there is also a similar site which is interactive at:
which allows you to place the arrows representing electrons into the orbitals to build the atom's total electron configuration. There is also QuickTime movies describing the three dimension shapes of each orbital.
The tricky part of Module 3 Part B is the filling of the "d" orbitals for Periods 4, 5, 6. Each does it a little different. You should be able to do any of the 3d, 4d, or 5d orbital arrangements. You can also watch the filling sequence with another interactive web site that places the arrows in the orbitals for any element on the periodic chart. Just click on the element, and the arrows will be properly shown. That web site is:
The filling sequence and the relationship to the periodic chart is show on the top of page 345. That is what you must fill-in for Module 3 Part C.
Section 8.5 describes the electron configuration of Ions. You must also know this as is demonstrated in Module 3 Part E objective, where you will show the electron configuration of a Positive ion and the electron configuration of one negative ion.
Now skip to Chapter 9 and Section 9.1 which discusses valence electrons. In Objective Module 3 Part D, you are expected to draw the Lewis Dot Structure for any Representative element (Groups 1,2,13,14,15,16,17,18) of the periodic chart. The Dot structure of the atoms are also shown on the web page:
Finally you can look at Chapter 3 section 3.3 on pages 103-106 and understand how you can look at the periodic chart and predict the ionic character of any Representative Element. Now you should be able to do Module 3 Part F objective.
To practice over 40 vocabulary words for objective Module 3 Part K which spans all the sections of these chapters, you can interact with the web site:
Your text book does not have a key word vocabulary list at the end of each chapter, nor does it have a glossary in the back, except some of the index key words are defined as a partial glossary. The definitions on the web site above will be the definition listed in Part K of the test. Most are basic review words from CHM 1025C or your previous chemistry course.
Possibly before the end of the summer a vocabulary list from the Kotz 6e text will be extracted from each of Module 3ís chapters 2,7, and 8