Summary of VSEPR Film and Lecture

 

Steric Number = Number of Bonded atoms plus Lone Pairs:

 

S# bond angle Hybrid orbital type

 

4 109 o sp3 hybrid orbitals (4 total orbitals)

 

3 120o sp2 hybrid orbitals (3 total orbitals)

 

2 180 sp hybrid orbitals (2 total orbitals)

 

1 no angle s orbital (Only hydrogen has a S# of 1)

 

Methane

 

109 o bond angles

 

sp3 hybrid orbitals

 

Molecular shape:

Tetrahedronal

 

Polarity:

Non Polar

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ethylene

 

120 o bond angles

 

sp2 hybrid orbitals

 

Molecular shape:

Planer

 

Polarity:

Non Polar

 

Steric Number of carbon in methane:

4 bonded atoms and no lone pairs = 4

 

Steric Number of each Carbon in ethylene:

3 bonded atoms and no lone pairs = 3

 

 

Acetylene

 

180 o bond angles

 

sp hybrid orbitals

 

Molecular shape:

Linear

 

Polarity:

Non Polar

 

 

 

 

Ammonia

 

109 o bond angles

 

sp3 hybrid orbitals

 

Molecular shape:

Trigonal Pyramidal

 

Polarity:

Polar

 

 

 

Sulfur Trioxide

 

120 o bond angles

 

sp2 hybrid orbitals

 

Molecular shape:

Planer

 

Polarity:

nonpolar

Steric Number of each Carbon in acetylene:

2 bonded atoms and no lone pairs = 2

Steric Number of each Carbon in acetylene:

3 bonded atoms and 1 lone pairs = 4

 

Steric Number of sulfur in sulfur trioxide:

3 bonded atoms and no lone pairs = 3

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hydrogen Peroxide

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hydrogen Cyanide

 

 

 

 

 

Sulfur Dioxide

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hypobromous Acid

(Hydrogen Hypobromite)

 

 

 

 

 

 

Nitrous Acid

(Hydrogen Nitrite)

 

 

 

 

 

Urea

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Carbon Dioxide

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

S# bond angle Hybrid orbital type

5 180/120/90 sp3d hybrid orbitals (5 total orbitals)

6 180/90 sp3d2 hybrid orbitals (6 total orbitals)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hybrid Orbital Model of Ethane

 

 

 

 

Hybrid Orbital Model of Methanol

 

 

 

 

 

Steric Numbers 2 through 6

Hybrid Orbital Type, Geometry, and Bond Angles:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

SP3 Hybrid Orbital Model

 

SP2 Hybrid Orbital Model

 

 

 

 

SP Hybrid Orbital Model

 

 

Aromatic Hydrocarbons

(Substitute hydrogen before Add to Double Bonds

because of resonance hybrid of double bonds):

 

Benzene (not 1,3,5 cyclohexatriene)